On August 23, 1917 black soldiers stationed at Camp Logan, in Houston, TX became embroiled in a deadly riot with local police and white civilians who still did not recognize their military service as a basis for equal rights in Jim Crow America. The plaque, posted near the site where the soldiers were stationed (one of the few such recognitions of the black civil rights struggle at the beginning of the 20th century), indicates that “Jim Crow and police harassment” were contributing factors to the violence. However, on December 11 1917 only the black soldiers were punished, by execution. Conflicts erupted between black soldiers and white communities near the locations where they were stationed (Brownsville, Houston, Bisbee, San Francisco, Norfolk etc.), often as a result of frustration that service and sacrifice to the nation still left these soldiers being treated as second class citizens. Many soldiers returned from Europe where they experienced white societies that did not impose the same restrictions (segregation in public accommodations) as they endured at home.