red summer

Red Summer is a survey of locations in the American landscape where a series of racial conflicts occurred between 1917 and 1923. The selected locations are not meant to be comprehensive, however, they are offered as examples of these post World War I conflicts.  A simplified view of the causes can be divided into three categories of particular concern (all race based) for my project; growing African American response to decades of lynching, labor conflicts stemming from the mass immigration of white European labor and the disappointment of black veterans that returned home to second class status in a segregated and biased society.

The prints incorporate landscape images of the communities where many of the significant events occurred with fragments of contemporaneous newspaper accounts of the era. “Red Summer” was a term used by James Weldon Johnson to describe the concentration of racial conflicts (at least 25) that took place across the U.S. during 1919.

Click thumbnail images below to view full versions. Prints are available for exhibition. A selection of images from the Red Summer project will be on display in eight cities (U.S. and Canada) as part of The FENCE 2018.