red summer

Red Summer is a portfolio of photographic collages created as a response to the locations in the U. S. landscape where a series of racial conflicts occurred between 1917 and 1923. The selected locations are not meant to be comprehensive, however, they are offered as examples of these post World War I conflicts.  A simplified view of a few of the categories of particular concern for this work include (but are not limited to); growing African American response (resistance) to decades of lynching, labor conflicts stemming from the mass immigration of European labor and the disappointment of black veterans that returned home to second class status in a segregated and biased society.

The prints incorporate landscape images of the communities where many of the significant events occurred with fragments of contemporaneous newspaper accounts of the era. “Red Summer” was a term used by James Weldon Johnson to describe the concentration of racial conflicts (at least 25) that took place across the U.S. during 1919.

Click thumbnail images below to view full versions. Prints are available for exhibition.